Saturday, February 15, 2020
Land Power Versus Sea Power - Essay Example This dichotomy has not been limited to the perspectives of the Anglo-Americans on hegemonic power. Alexander Dugin, the geopolitical theorist from Russia, argued that this was core to international conflict, contending that these positions are the basis of cultural differences that will be in conflict all the time. This paper aims to discuss the two concepts and show whether they are relevant or obsolete in international relations. MahanÃ¢â¬â¢s idea contends that the potency of a nation is dependent on unobstructed access to the sea in order to conduct trade. His interpretation of sea power was the total of factors and forces, geographical circumstances and tools, operated to attain sea command and secure it from enemies (Gray, 2009). In MahanÃ¢â¬â¢s formulation, sea power included colonies, shipping, and domestic production. America, he said, had to build and maintain a massive combat navy to be fuelled by coal stations in the colonies. His argument was on the basis that the Uni ted States should become internationally competitive for the protection of itself. Mahan articulated ideas on sea power importance and the desire to see an expansionist philosophy for the American nation. Mackinder, on the other hand, extended his land power theory. He said the land surface could be subdivided into various parts. One was the world island that included Africa, Asia, and Europe interlinked together. This combination was the richest, most populous, and largest of them all (Kennedy, 2004). Another part was the offshore islands which included the Japanese and British Islands. Finally, he identified the outlying islands such as Australia, South America, and North America. It was the heartland which he saw as lying at the centre of the island of the world, extending from the arctic to the Himalayas and from the Yangtze to the Volga. During his era, the heartland was that controlled by the empire of Russia, later by the Soviets without the Vladivostok and the area around it . Mackinder predicted that the rimlands, as he called them, would become less relevant as industrialization caught on in the heartlands and as the inland became more accessible by the railway system. This would make land an asset rather than a barrier to communication. Eventually, Russia would tap the massive natural resources and manpower it had and overshadow its fellow powers in the west. MahanÃ¢â¬â¢s theory remains relevant to date especially as far as its logic goes. AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s power in the sea has now turned on the ability of the navy to preserve access to the Eastern part of Asia, as well as the Middle East, which are the theatres of American maritime operations. The strategic gaze of the Americans now lies on Asia as its maritime target. However, costs for such projects are increasing while budget acquisition becomes stagnant. This, in turn, has led to downward pressure on the fleet size of the American Navy. The ability of the Sea Services to carry out the maritime strategy of 2007 is now becoming a doubt. The Chinese Navy, on the other hand, is on a quite different trajectory (Gilboy & Higginbotham, 2012). It now has new aircraft, submarines, and new ships. While these assets may not be equal to the American assets, their fleet is more focused on Asia. With the US placing more focus on a global scale, they could not apply adequate force at a theatre. An ASBM under construction
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Role of Entrepreneurship - Essay Example Innovation is a key factor in entrepreneurship. Innovation involves introducing new ideas and products as a measure of improving or satisfying a market need. The chief instigator of innovation is the entrepreneur, who analyzes the pros and cons of innovation and the likely risks that relate to implementing innovation. The say if it is not broken, do not fix it; however, this concept cannot apply to entrepreneurs based on their pursuit of increased sales and maintaining their pioneer status. Innovation is a factor that is pivotal in the longevity of a company. (Howkins, 2001) Mercedes-Benz: A Leader in Innovation The best example of innovation relates to Mercedes-Benz in the 1980s. The company came out with a new concept of using block headlights instead of the popular circular headlights. They claimed that the concept would be copied by a majority of car companies in the 1990s. It was a bold statement by the car company, who were deemed to be blowing their own horn at the time (Reyno lds, 2007). However, true to their prediction, in 1992, several car companies had begun using the block headlights introduced by Mercedes-Benz. This is an illustration of the impact of being a pioneer in innovation. The fact that Mercedes introduce the concept the concept first meant that they were the leading light in car innovation, and to some degree, they still are to this day. Though it was a risk making the bold prediction, there were spot-on proving they have a sharp eye for solid innovation concepts. The primary aim of any entrepreneur is to ensure that their company makes the most sales and net profit (gross profit Ã¢â¬â company costs = net profit). Wise entrepreneurs push this factor beyond the limits of the company in order to grow as a company. Growth involves factors such as becoming a multinational company, and becoming the global leader in sales of a given product. It is vital for an entrepreneur to push the company to its highest limits, and put it on a level that will make the world take notice. This may not be the best strategy for the consumers; however, the ultimate task for an entrepreneur is to become a monopoly in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s respective market. This ensures that the company is the pioneer in the market, and the latter will make purchases from the company anytime they require a product that the company produces. Coca Cola: an Entrepreneurship based on Establishing a Monopoly The best example is Coca-Cola; when it comes to soft drinks, the first word on everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s lips is coca-cola. Such is the dominance of the company, that it can be considered the global monopoly of soft drinks. It holds over 70% of the market share for soft drinks on a global scale. As a result, the company is able to generate large volumes of revenue, which can be used for aggressive advertisement (Howkins, 2001). Though it has established itself as a soft drink monopoly, Coca-cola does not rest on this accomplishment. It is constantly seeking new ma rkets to enter, such as the water market. Coca-cola has entered the juice market and is looking into venturing into the tea and coffee markets. This is evident of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s ambitions, which are evidence of quality entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship is important in the revival of companies. Employing the right CEO or chairman is the fine line between success and failure of a company. Experience is the best teacher that serves to educate entrepreneurs
Saturday, January 25, 2020
"The WTO is now a debating society with a Supreme Court". Has the legalization of the WTO weakened its diplomacy-based negotiating mechanism? With the creation of the World Trade Organization (WTO), dispute settlement has moved to the centre stage of the multilateral trading order. Hence, in this essay I will consider the effects of the new Dispute Settlement Mechanism (DSM) on trade relations. At first, I will illustrate how the DSM operates and how it is different from dispute settlement under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Secondly, I will underline the relative success of the new DSM but also point to some emerging problems and weaknesses inherent in a highly legalized DSM. I will conclude that the DSM has weakened the WTOÃ¢â¬â¢s diplomacy-based negotiating mechanism as the emphasis of dispute settlement has markedly shifted from political bargaining to legal proceedings. Yet, I will contend that the description of the WTO as a Ã¢â¬Å"debating societyÃ¢â¬ is inadequate since member states are explicitly creating and enforcing trade rules rather then just debating over them. Moreover, to portray the new DSM as a Ã¢â¬Å"Supreme CourtÃ¢â¬ seems implausible since on the one hand, it represents an ad-hoc two-tier system and not a full time court; on the other, it still supports and favours out-of-court settlements at almost any stage of the legal process. The goal of establishing a more effective DSM during the Uruguay Round negotiations was to foster the creation of a Ã¢â¬Å"rule-oriented systemÃ¢â¬ that gives guidance in the way of predictable and generally stable rules to all participants of the multilateral world trading system (Article 3.2 of the DSU ). Although international trade is understood in the WTO as the flow of goods and services between members, it is typically not conducted by states, but rather by private economic actors. These market participants need stability and predictability in the government laws, rules and regulations applying to their commercial activity, especially when they conduct trade on the basis of long-term transactions. Hence, the DSU aims to provide a fast, efficient, dependable and rule-oriented system to resolve disputes about the application of the provisions of the WTO agreement. An interesting facet of the cases brought so far to the DSM is the much higher amount of participation by develop ing countries. They have brought a number of the cases themselves, even against some of the big industrial trading entities (Thailand vs. US in December 2004 or Korea vs.
Friday, January 17, 2020
What will Antonio become when he grows up? A priest? A vaquero? A curandero? A farmer? AntonioÃ¢â¬â¢s future is not clear because, at the end of the novel, he has finally decided to choose his own path. Instead of listening to the beliefs of his mother or the desires of his father, he will fulfill UltimaÃ¢â¬â¢s encouragement to follow his heart. With this in mind, it seems likely that Antonio will probably become a man of learning according to Ultima, Whether or not this means that Antonio will become a priest as well is uncertain. Considering his questions about religion and morality and his anxieties about sin, it seems as if the life of a priest is not for him. However, no matter what he decides to do when he becomes an adult, the most important thing is that he has learned to make his own path. Ã¢â¬Å"I had more time to spend with Ultima, and in her company I found a great deal of solace and peace.Ã¢â¬ (Anaya 223) If Antonio found solace and peace with Ultima because of what she did (being a curandera). So why should he give up his solace and peace once she was gone? If becomes a curandero he would give himself solace and peace because of what he would do like Ultima. Ã¢â¬Å"I dropped to my knees; bless me, UltimaÃ¢â¬ (Anaya 260) Antonio asked to bless him right before she died. Antonio did not ask her to bless him in the name of God but a being a curandera. This seems to make Antonio not believe in God but in the powers of curandera. Ã¢â¬Å"I bless you in the name of all that is good and strong and beautiful, Antonio. Always have the strength to live. Love life, and if despair enters your heart, look for me in the evenings when the wind is gentle and the owls sing in the hills. I shall be with youÃ¢â¬ (Anaya 261) UltimaÃ¢â¬â¢s final blessing to Antonio Her statement also gives Antonio a idea with which to understand her death by offering a sequence of physical objects that he can see as symbols of her life and through which he can continue to feel her presence. Antonio will be without Ultima and will have to make his own choices without her guidance from now on, but she makes it clear in this blessing that her spirit will endure with him and that the lessons she has taught him will still serve him well even after she dies.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
In his novel Things Fall Apart, author Chinua Achebe utilizes his distinctive writing style in order to accurately capture the culture and customs of the Igbo people despite writing his story in a foreign language. Five aspects of AchebeÃ¢â¬â¢s style that make his writing unique is the straightforward diction present in dialogue, the inclusion of native parables convey Igbo life authentically, the inclusion of native Igbo words and phrases, detailed descriptions of nature and the usage of figurative language. Perhaps the most discernible of all the stylistic devices present in Things Fall Apart, AchebeÃ¢â¬â¢s straightforward diction present in excerpts of dialogue are utilized to contrast the native AfricansÃ¢â¬â¢ culture from that of their European imperialists; the Igbo speak in a straightforward tongue since they have no ulterior agendas and honest language is the medium through which they perceive the world while the white men speak in a complex manner to hide their true thoughts. For instance, when Mr. Smith and a group of native men are arguing over the location of the Christian church, the Igbo speak plainly stating that, Ã¢â¬Å"It is good that a man should worship the gods and the spirits of his fathers. Go back to you house so that you may not be hurtÃ¢â¬ (Achebe 190) while Mr. Smith refuses them in a more advanced manner replying that Ã¢â¬Å"this is the house of GOd and I will not live to see it desecratedÃ¢â¬ (190). Not only is Mr. SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s vocabulary more sophi sticated, but the the ideas behindShow MoreRelatedChinua Achebe s Things Fall Apart1719 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThings fall apart is a classic novel written around the turn of the century, the novel focuses on the protagonist who we can also call a hero, Okonkwo. Okonkwo is a wealthy and respected leader within the Igbo tribe of Umuofia in eastern Nigeria. Strong individual with a passionate belief in all the values and traditions of his people. Chinua Achebe presents Okonkwo as a particular kind of tragic protagonist, a great man who carries the fate of his people. Okonkwo is a man who is inflexible andRead MoreChinua Achebe s Things Fall Apart1033 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIntroduction Chinua Achebe is a famous Nigerian novelist in worldwide. Things fall apart is Chinua AchebeÃ¢â¬â¢s first novel published in 1958, the year after Ghana became the first African nation to gain independence. And this novel is one of the first African novels to gain worldwide recognition. (Phil Mongredien, 2010) This novel presents people a story of an African Igbo tribal hero, Okonkwo, from his growth to death. The fate of Okonkwo also indicates the fate of Africa caused by the colonizationRead MoreChinua Achebe s Things Fall Apart883 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdehumanize the native population and convince themselves that they are helping. Chinua AchebeÃ¢â¬â¢s book Things Fall Apart attempts to correct these misguided views of African societies by portraying a more complex culture that values peace, and the art of conversation. Achebe also tries to portray the idea that not all European people they come in contact with are aggressive, and misconstrued in their view of the African societ ies. Achebe tries to show us the value of his society through repeated views into conversationsRead MoreChinua Achebe s Things Fall Apart1410 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTeddy Manfre Ms. Blass ENG 209-001 April 24, 2017 Things Fall Apart In 1958, Chinua Achebe a famous Nigerian author publishes one of his most famous novels Things Fall Apart. The novel takes place in a Nigerian village called Umuofia. During the time that this novel is published Nigeria is being criticized by the Europeans for being uncivilized. In response, Achebe uses his brilliance in this novel to express the valued history of his people to his audience. His focus in the novel is on the pre-colonizedRead MoreChinua Achebe s Things Fall Apart1702 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTitle: Things Fall Apart Biographical information about the author: Chinua Achebe was born in Nigeria in 1930. He had an early career as a radio host, and later became the Senior Research Fellow at the University of Nigeria. After moving to America, he became an English professor at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Achebe has won numerous awards for his poetry and fiction, including the Man Booker prize and Commonwealth Poetry Price. He currently teaches at Bard College. Author: Chinua AchebeRead MoreChinua Achebe s Things Fall Apart Essay1347 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCulture is an Important Element of Society Chinua Achebe is the author of when Things Fall Apart while Joseph Conrad authored Heart of Darkness. Conrad and Achebe set their individual titles in Africa; Achebe is an African writer whereas Conrad is Polish-British. The authors draw strength from their backgrounds to validity the authenticity of their fictional novels. Conrad writes from his experiences in the British and French navies while Achebe uses his African heritage. The theme of culture isRead MoreChinua Achebe s Things Fall Apart1248 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesChris Lowndes Ms. Cook A.P.L.C. 21 October 2015 We Are Family: Hardships in One s Family in Things Fall Apart Specific attributes correlate with each other to help create or not create the ideal strong family. However, through those attributes arise conflicts and major disputes. This issue of trying to achieve and create a strong family is of immense importance in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life, especially in Chinua AchebeÃ¢â¬â¢s, Things Fall Apart, a milestone in African literature. For instance, the father leaves his legacyRead MoreChinua Achebe s Things Fall Apart Essay1682 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescertain degree of the priest class, libation, holidays, creation stories, divine systems of punishments and rewards. In the novel, Things Fall Apart, written by Chinua Achebe, is a story of tragic fall of a protagonist and the Igbo culture. Achebe demonstrates different examples and situations of where an African culture, in the instances of tribal religions, did certain things because of their tradition is and the way they developed into. African cultures pondered life mysteries and articulated theirRead Mo reChinua Achebe s Things Fall Apart1314 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesChinua Achebe masterpiece Ã¢â¬Å"Things Fall ApartÃ¢â¬ (1959) is the classic story of Okonkwo, a young man who strives to be revered by his village and family but because of his own internal character flaws meets his own demise. In the Igbo culture, family traditions are an important narrative throughout the novel. Okonkwo, the protagonist character of this story, begins with many attributes of what would be concluded as a hero with his cultural society. He is hard working, a material provider, feared andRead MoreChinua Achebe s Things Fall Apart Essay983 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The author Chinua Achebe, in the novel, Ã¢â¬Å"Things Fall Apart,Ã¢â¬ shares extreme diversity between the female and male characters residing in Umofia. Okonkwo, the male leader of the tribe, carries qualities such as power and manliness, as all men are expected to. As for the females they are commonly referred to as being weaker for child bearing and more responsible because they are expected to cook, clean, and take care of their children. Although the traits of the Igbo culture vary in the determination
Tuesday, December 31, 2019
If you are a true fan ever and youÃ¢â¬â¢re assigned with the task to create a solid research essay on the person you admire, Michael Jordan will be the perfect individual to perform a research on. The research essay includes all the basic sections that any other essay is supposed to have. An introduction, the body and the paragraph with your conclusions should be provided within the essay. College and university students face research essay writing tasks very often, so it will be of no surprise to you when we say that the best way to start your essay is to provide a particular hooking fact about the topic. As for Michael Jordan, it is recommended to start the essay with an interesting fact from the basketball playerÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Why not mention that Michael Jordan was once mentioned in the film Ã¢â¬Å"Like MikeÃ¢â¬ ? The plot of the movie is based on the life of a boy who gets a pair of old basketball shoes that belonged to Michael, and of course (as it usually happens in the Hollywood masterpieces) in some magical Ã way the boy starts playing the game just the way Jordan does! When writing the body of the essay, it is recommended to focus on some unknown details taken from the Michael JordanÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Make sure to tell your reader how such a fearless and talented man had to struggle with his own fears from his early childhood years. The point is that one of the things Michael Jordan has taken from the past is his fear of water. As a little kid, Michael had his close friend drown and die right in JordanÃ¢â¬â¢s presence, and, what is more, the famous sportsman almost drowned himself when he was eleven years old, at a baseball camp. As a result, nowadays Michael Jordan remembers all his childhood experiences and is not too keen on swimming. Depending on the topic you will choose for the essay, provide interesting facts about the early years of JordanÃ¢â¬â¢s career, his family and hobbies. Talking about the favorite leisure the basketball player gives prefers, the author of the essay should mention that MJ is a great mellow music and jazz fan. He used to spend his free hours listening to his favorite Anita Baker, Rachelle Ferrell, and Erykah Badu. Conduct a little research on how Michael took the path of a talented sportsman. Create a list of the points that, in your opinion, were essential for JordanÃ¢â¬â¢s success.
Monday, December 23, 2019
Although most senators, representatives and school officials support common core state standards (CCSS), they have not received or researched the history of how CCSS introduced itself. Furthermore, they do not understand that local control is being taken away, which results in the eventual destruction of excellent, local schools, students, and future generations. Two private trade organizations located in Washington, D.C, wrote the CCSS at the request of Achieve, a company created by Bill and Melinda Gates. Thus, CCSS did not arise from the state level but of an interested organization associated with education. Most Americans do not want their local school district sharing their kidsÃ¢â¬â¢ personal, identifiable data with the federalÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This amendment pushed Ohio into the wrong direction especially in regards to protecting a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s privacy. Although OhioÃ¢â¬â¢s governor, Ted Strickland, signed and agreed to adopt a set of national standards in June 2009 to obtain 400 million dollars in Race To The Top (RTTT) money, he had not read or reviewed these standards as the completed CCSS were not published until July 2009. The Standards simply passed through the Ohio Congress without knowing the dangers. According to the article Ã¢â¬Å"Myths versus FactsÃ¢â¬ written by an anti-CCSS group called Truth in American Education, most states implemented Common Core to Ã¢â¬Å" be eligible to compete [in] the federal Race to Top Funding.Ã¢â¬ At the request of Achieve Inc., the National GovernorÃ¢â¬â¢s Association (NGA) and the Chief Counsel of State School Officers (CCSSO) wrote national standards called CCSS. David Coleman, the new president of the State College Boards, admits that he had to sell these national standards to the governors. Although Coleman does not have any background in education, he received instruction to rewrite the SAT and ACT to align these national tests to the Common Core State Standards. The question remains as to whether CCSS began as a state-led initiative or were established unconstitutionally? Did the 200 million dollars that Ohio received upon signing and the promise of an additional 200 million dollar at the full implementation of Common Core influence theShow MoreRelatedAmerican Federation Of Teacher s President s Randi Weingarten969 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe article started by mentioning that the common core have come under severe criticism by early childhood education experts. Those experts say that the common cores are not developmentally appropriate for students; and so as the American federation of teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s Randi Weingarten, which also called for revamping of these early education standards. Weingarten called the early childhood expert Nancy Carlsson for the Defending the Early Years. Defending the Early Years, a non-prof it projectRead MoreSpecial Needs Students Are Struggling With The Common Core Writing Standards1631 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSpecial Needs Students are Struggling with the Common Core Writing Standards Ã¢â¬Å"The Kentucky Department of Education argues that the Common Core standards ensure students have the Ã¢â¬Ëopportunity to learn the skills that are deemed most important and relevant to the world today,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Burks, et al., 2015). Every child deserves to have a quality education, no matter their circumstances. Whether it is their mental health, where they live, or economic background, every student should have the opportunityRead MoreThe Common Core State Standards896 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages CCSS Differentiated Classrooms Blog Kishore Boone EDU673: Instrucional Strategies For Differentiated Teaching Learning Instructor: Sara Mattson Date: August, 25, 2014 The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) are a set of academic standards created to establish clear and defined objectives for elementary and secondary students across the United States. These guidelines consist of what every student from kindergarten to the 12th grade should know and be able to master inRead MoreCommon Core Stat Standards ( Ccss )1564 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAn Introduction of the Topic Common Core Stat Standards (CCSS) is an interesting topic of discussion and debate because it is such a charged topic. CCSS are a set of standards that are set equally amongst all states, as opposed to states creating their own standards, with significant monetary benefits for states that accept and exceed standards set by CCSS. This topic in particular is interesting because of how politically charged it is. Some individuals think of it as a big-government takeover ofRead MoreEssay on Common Core State Standards and Its Impact on Curriculum 1641 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCommon Core State Standards and Its Impact on Curriculum Introduction Common Core State Standards (CCSS) is a voluntary state led initiative that looks to establish clear expectations for learning in grades kindergarten through twelfth that are standard from state to state. The purpose of the standards is to make certain that there is uniformity in student proficiency and high school graduates have the know-how and ability needed for college and a competitive workforce in the twenty-first centuryRead MoreThe Common Core State Standards Essay1433 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageslife? The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) not only standardizes education, but it makes comprehension and intricate tool of the learning process. When it comes to American public education, the diagnosis has been offered that our schools suffer from a lack of consistent standards from coast to coast about what our kids should leave school knowing. The fix that has been adopted in a number of states in the last few years is a set of standards called the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) , which haveRead MoreThe Common Core : A Disaster For American Education1006 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Common Core Ã¢â¬Å"The Common Core: A Disaster for Libraries, A Disaster for Language Arts, A Disaster for American Education,Ã¢â¬ was written by Stephen Krashen and taken from Knowledge Quest January/February 2014 issue. Stephen Krashen is professor emeritus, University of Southern California. Krashen points out that the Common Core State Standards, or CCSS, is not relevant for students. He states there are other issues that should be addressed, such as food insecurity or lack of healthRead MoreA Brief Note On Common Core State Standards1277 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHonors English 9 30 October 2014 Not Quite a Bullseye Common Core State Standards are no stranger to American households. It has caused both great worry, confusion, and stress to parents and teachers alike. Not to mention all the pressure it puts on studentsÃ¢â¬âthe ones whose future depends on it. Created by major international corporations in America, Common Core State Standards (Engel) are anything but individualized to each state. These standards were designed, in part, to circumvent federal restrictionsRead MoreThe Common Core : A Disaster For American Education1020 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"The Common Core: A Disaster for Libraries, A Disaster for Language Arts, A Disaster for American Education,Ã¢â¬ was written by Stephen Krashen and taken from Knowledge Quest January/February 2014 issue. Stephen Krashen is professor emeritus, University of Southern California. Krashen points out that the Common Core State Standards, or CCSS, is not relevant for students. He states there are other issues that should be addressed, such a s food insecurity or lack of health care, before we put more financesRead MoreThe Importance Of The No Child Left Behind Act719 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesCCSS became active in 2009 to improve the No Child Left Behind Act: A law signed by President George W. Bush in 2001 to provide federal money to less privileged schools. Money given was for extra educational assistance to improve academic test scores to reach proficiency or above. Ã¢â¬Å"The goal of the law is that all students will score at the proficient level in reading and math by 2014Ã¢â¬ (Fairtest, 2008). It was mandatory to take a standardized test for the school to report the percentages of proficiency